Hello! In this article, we will talk about the types of customers in sales.
- What types of clients exist;
- How to determine the type of client;
- What sales technique to use for each type.
Marketing of any enterprise can be represented as answers to three questions: what and how to produce (sell), and who will buy the manufactured products.
Oddly enough, you should start with the last question, namely with the definition of the target audiencefor which your product is intended.
However, this is not enough. Currently, the need is to divide the entire target audience of the company into separate segments with their subsequent description.
Why is it so important? Let's figure it out.
- The modern consumer is an individual. Accordingly, marketing tools must be customized for each individual. As you can imagine, this is impossible. Segmentation allows you to identify groups among the target audience that react in the same way to the same marketing tools, which increases the efficiency of the company and saves on the marketing budget.
- Almost all markets are currently experiencing a high level of competition . Segmentation allows the company to “cut” the market into “pieces” and not enter into a destructive price war.
Segmentation allows you to increase the efficiency of sales , prompting the seller a course of action with each specific client.
There are many approaches to segmentation. One of them is the selection of types of clients. This approach is especially useful when selling goods, when the seller needs to find an approach to a particular client.
The typology of customers is the selection among the target audience of several groups of consumers who differ from each other in their behavior when making a purchase.
There are a fairly large number of options for classifying types of consumers. The application of one or another classification is determined by the field of activity of the company. We will give two types of classification of clients according to psychological types.
The first allows you to identify consumers by their behavior in the process of making a purchase. The second categorizes consumers according to the purchasing decision model.
A despot is a client who is characterized by aggressive behavior, irritability and impulsiveness. He likes to argue, he is always sure that he is right. Categorically does not perceive criticism in his address. In the event that you use cold and warm calls to sell a product, this type of client is not for you, as a rare manager is able to handle such a telephone conversation.
How to work? If there are despots among your target customers, then stock up on good sales managers. The seller must have the following qualities: stress resistance, attentiveness, flexibility, ingenuity.
With these qualities, the manager can easily follow the basic rules of working with "despots":
- Listen to the client . In this case, you should not use the technique of active listening. Just listen to your client. After the aggression subsides, you can join the dialogue. Immediately demonstrate your understanding and agreement with the client;
- Don't argue with the client . Even if he unfairly insults you or scolds the product, do not go overboard, be flexible and try to neutralize the aggression. Remember the rule: "The customer is always right";
- Use arguments . For example, your interlocutor says that only a stupid person would buy such a product for such a price. Do not be afraid, justify the price of your product. At the same time, it is necessary to operate with rational arguments expressing the functional value of the product.
Dunno . This client does not know what exactly he needs. First he likes one product, and then another. However, he knows why he needs this or that product. This is what needs to be operated on.
Example. You see a visitor to your supermarket standing at the yogurt shelf. Let's say there are 10 different flavors of yogurt on it. The visitor carefully examines the packages, first takes one, then another. As a result, he leaves without a purchase. This is the unknown. He could not choose yogurt because of the large assortment.
By the way, an experiment was conducted, during which it turned out that it is difficult for any buyer to make a choice if he has more than four alternatives.
How to work?
- First you need to narrow down the choice to a few positions. Too much choice will frighten off such a consumer, and he will leave you without a purchase.
- Now you need to identify the consumer's problem that he came to you with. As a rule, this is not difficult to do, it is enough to ask a few leading questions.
- After determining the need, the manager will only have to present the product. Argument your position in terms of the value of the product for a particular consumer (that is, give as arguments those characteristics of the product that can solve the problem of the consumer).
Znayka knows everything about herself, about you and about everything in the world. He will tell you about your product. He likes to feel like an expert and convict you of low competence.
Example. A telephone conversation with an acquaintance is presented in the film “Boiler Room”. We recommend watching this movie as a learning aid.
How to work? Play along with the familiar. Admire his knowledge, but at the same time direct the conversation in the right direction for you. In dialogue, use the following turns: as you know, you know that others do.
Chatterbox. Such a client may come to you just to talk. He is open, cheerful, easy to communicate with.
Example. Chatterbox is featured in the movie "Miss Potter" in the scene of the negotiations between the publisher and Miss Potter. The publisher in this case was a talker.
How to work? Apply active sales techniques. Keep the conversation going, smile, answer the joke with a joke, but keep the dialogue on track. To keep the conversation flowing, ask closed-ended questions. For example: "Do you prefer skinny pants?".
Silent is the opposite of talker. He is sullen and wary, not in the mood for a conversation, answers in monosyllables or does not answer at all, he came for a purchase. The problem is that he himself will not tell you what exactly he needs. Silent will look at your windows in search of the right product. If he finds what he needs, he will make a purchase, otherwise he will leave empty-handed.
How to work? If the vast majority of your customers are silent, then try to put on the shelves most of your assortment so that the visitor can independently find the product he needs.
If this is not possible or you are selling a complex high-tech product, then you should adhere to the following rules in working with silent people: describe the product in as much detail as possible, be friendly, ask open-ended questions and patiently wait for answers to them.
A grumbler is an eternally dissatisfied customer. He is indecisive and prone to criticism, distrustful. He is always in doubt, he is not satisfied with modern reality.
How to work? Listen to the grumbler and take his side, show that you are familiar with his problem and you know how to solve it.
A conservative is someone who is afraid to change something. Any change in life is a big stress for him. This type of customer is very valuable for the organization, because once they buy from you, they will definitely come back to you.
Example. The man who didn't want to sell the building to Mr. Popper from Mr. Popper and His Penguins. Jim Carrey in the person of Mr. Popper did an excellent job.
How to work? Show how the customer will benefit from switching to your product. Give examples of famous people who use your product.
An analyst is a rationalist, before making a purchase decision, he can weigh all the pros and cons for a long time. He prefers to make an assessment on his own, to “feel” the goods.
Seeks to collect as much information as possible, categorical in his judgments. Perceives only reasoned arguments and judgments. Price plays an important role in making a purchasing decision. If such a consumer finds out that somewhere there is the same product, but it will cost him 5% less, then he will go to your competitors for the benefit.
How to work? Give the analyst as much information as possible and back it up with facts. Don't pressure the client. Show that your product will bring him great benefits.
Purposeful - a client who knows what he needs. If he decided to purchase this or that product, then he will buy it, no matter how you persuade him to abandon this venture. Ready to pay a large amount of money for the product you like (prone to overpayments).
How to work? If such a buyer came to your store, then he will leave with a purchase. Just let him take the item he chose. If you know that such a client will come to you, then you can raise the price tag, this will not scare him.
Emotional - lives with emotions, can change his mind several times. Price matters, but is not decisive. It gets impulsive. As a rule, these are creative people.
How to work? Give a choice to such a client, approach the sales process creatively. Be emotional in the description of the product, but at the same time operate with rational benefits.
Harmonic type - can take a long time to make a decision to buy, but if he decides to buy, he will definitely buy. Of great importance is the process of interaction with staff. He buys where he is best served (polite, friendly staff).
How to work? Surround such a client with attention and care. Show interest in his problem and suggest ways to solve it during the presentation of the product. He will not be able to avoid buying from you (in extreme cases, he will perform some other targeted action to “thank” you) if he sees that you have put in a lot of effort to help him.