Hello! In this article we will talk about the organization of the sales department of the company.
Today you will learn:
- What are the functions of the sales department?
- How to organize the work of the sales department;
- How to improve the efficiency of the sales department.
Tasks of the sales department
Sooner or later, any successful business reaches a point where a pair of sales managers becomes insufficient to sell products. It is at this moment that the entrepreneur faces the question of organizing a sales department.
Sales department - a set of specialists who perform the functions of attracting and servicing customers, selling goods.
The tasks of the sales department are:
- Increasing the number of consumers of the company . This task is entrusted to account managers and marketing communications specialists. The former are required to work with the sales funnel and convert visitors into buyers. The second is to attract potential buyers to the store;
- Increase in the average check . The seller must make sure that the client buys for a larger amount than he bought before. The goal is achieved in two ways: by increasing prices (but this is fraught with a reduction in the number of purchases) or by introducing cross-selling techniques. Cross-selling is the sale of an additional product in conjunction with the main one to the same consumer. A good example of cross-selling is the sale of a pre-checkout item. Its cost is insignificant for the client, but in aggregate it gives a good additional income to the company;
- Maintaining client bases, lead generation . This is a very important task of the sales department. Thanks to customer and purchase records, you can set up marketing communications tools, simplify the process of conducting market research , personalize customer relationships, and establish sales through direct channels .
- Product promotion activities . A controversial function, since most often it is assigned to the marketing department . However, if marketers do not take into account the opinions of salespeople when forming the company's promotion policy, then the effectiveness of the advertising campaign will be in question. That is why the sales department and the marketing department are often subordinated to each other. We will talk about this now.
The structure of the sales department
There are several options for building a sales department.
The choice of one or another structure depends on the following factors:
- The main tasks of the department;
- The number of employees in the department;
- Area of activity of the enterprise;
- The nature and complexity of the products produced;
- The degree of differentiation of activities;
- Territorial location of points of sale.
Functional-linear structure of the sales department
In the event that your company's assortment consists of a small number of product items, you sell goods in only one region and do not plan to expand, then the functional-linear structure of the sales department is for you.
As the name implies, the subordination of employees with a linear functional structure is organized according to a linear type. This means that each employee reports to only one leader, which reduces the number of conflicts in the team to zero.
At the first level of the functional-linear structure is the head of the sales department.
The functions of the head of the sales department are:
- Setting the strategic goals of the department;
- Control over the implementation of the goals and objectives of the department;
- Training of employees of the department;
- Collection and preparation of sales information for other departments;
- Setting goals,
- Maintaining discipline in the department;
- Staff motivation ;
- Sales process optimization;
- Records management;
- Provision of equipment;
- Establishing communication within the department and with other departments of the company.
The second level in the hierarchy of subordination is represented by the heads of the functional divisions of the sales department. What exactly these functions will be depends on the specifics of the company's activities.
Most often, there is an account manager, a marketing communications manager, and a document management manager.
Also, employees performing marketing functions can be located at the second level. In this case, you place marketing under the subordination of the sales department, respectively, there will be no marketing department in your enterprise.
Possible division by sales functions. For example, the selection of leaders for active and passive sales , direct and personal.
The third level is represented by employees who are subordinate to functional managers. Each employee has his own range of duties corresponding to the main function.
Matrix structure of the sales department by geography
In the event that you sell goods in several regions at once, which are located at a considerable distance from each other, a regional matrix structure will suit you.
It is characterized by double (cross) subordination of employees: the same employee is subordinate to the functional and regional chief.
Dual subordination is fraught with the emergence of conflicts in the department, but at the same time allows you to unload the leading managers.
The decision to organize work according to the regional type depends on the volume of sales in the geographical market and the specifics of the region.
In the event that the demand in the region is small, it is advisable to transfer it to the manager for the neighboring region (that is, to combine geographical markets).
However, if the geographical market has significant distinctive features (for example, demand is observed only for certain categories of products, consumers do not respond to standard promotion tools), then it is still worth thinking about appointing a responsible person for the region.
Organization of the sales department by product categories
This organizational structure also applies to the matrix. Only this time, employees report to functional managers and product category (product) managers.
This type of organizational structure suits you if:
- You sell a complex, high-tech or innovative product;
- You sell goods in small wholesale or retail lots;
- You have a narrow but deep assortment;
- Your product requires after-sales service (installation, adjustment, repair).
The purpose of organizing activities by product is to identify product categories that require a different approach to the sales process.
Example. Your product portfolio includes smartphones and their accessories. Smartphones, as a high-tech product, should be offered through personal sales channels, and an online store is also suitable for selling accessories . This will save consumers time. In this case, you can distinguish between a sales manager for phones in physical stores and a sales manager through an online channel.
If the products you sell are not related or complementary, then organizing the sales team by product category is the most effective option.
Organization of the sales department by customer type
It is also characterized by double subordination: to the functional head and the head of consumer segments.
Classification of clients can occur on various grounds. Most often, corporate and private consumers are distinguished, "cold" and "hot", permanent and possible.
This type of structure is suitable for you if:
- Each type of customer is based on their specific factors when buying;
- You have selected no more than three to five segments ;
- The consumer behavior of each segment is very different.
Stages of organizing the work of the sales department
The process of planning and organizing the sales department includes the following steps:
- Determining the required qualifications of personnel . Conduct an analysis of all the work that each employee of the department will have to perform. For example, an active sales manager must inform consumers about promotions , convert visitors into buyers, and keep order on the trading floor. Thus, we need a responsible, sociable, stress-resistant, active employee with competent speech. But if we were looking for an employee for passive sales, then the list of requirements could be reduced to two positions: responsible and competent.
- Development of job descriptions . The job description includes the name of the position, duties and rights of the employee, his tasks and functions, a description of the resources provided for work, the amount of power and authority;
- Distribution of duties between employees . It implies the division of functions between the employees of the department. For example, one seller works with buyers in the hall, and the other punches the goods at the checkout;
- Formation of the work schedule . At this stage, you must determine the length of the working day, distribute lunch time and days off among employees;
- Setting goals and objectives . The goal, as a rule, is set for the entire department as a whole or for each distribution channel individually. Tasks are distributed among employees. For example, seller “A” this month must sell goods in the amount of 100,000 rubles;
- Development of a control system for the activities of the department . Designate the indicators by which you will determine the effectiveness of the department. It can be the volume of sales, the number of new customers. A systematic approach to sales control will improve the efficiency of the entire department;
- Definition of standards . Performance standards - qualitative and quantitative indicators of the employee's work, which strictly regulate the amount of work that he must complete in a certain period of time;
- Development of a system for improving the qualifications of employees . If you want your business to consistently bring you profit, you must periodically improve the skills of your employees.
Improving the work of the sales department
The low efficiency of the sales department, failure to achieve goals and objectives indicates the need to take measures to improve the organization of the work of managers. These measures can be directed both to the sales department as a whole and to each manager individually.
Measures to improve the efficiency of the sales department:
- Implement a CRM system . This tool automates the process of compiling a client base, allows you to control the sales process, and also provides you with information about the performance of the department and each employee. In the event that you sell goods through telemarketing, we recommend integrating a CPM system with telephony, which will allow you to control the number of contacts, the length of calls and their effectiveness. By the way, we advise you to sometimes listen to the conversations of your managers, this will allow you to identify problem areas. Be sure to work on them.
- Write a sales script . A sales script is an example scenario of a conversation between a manager and a client. It allows you to repeat the actions of the manager that led to the deal from time to time.
- Become a mystery shopper (or hire one) and visit one of your outlets . You will immediately see the "weak" points of the sales process.
Analyze . Are your sales declining despite sales promotion efforts ? Do not rush to blame the product promotion manager for everything. Probably, the sellers ignored the action and did not inform the visitors, and did not show any activity at all due to the lack of motivation, for which the head of the sales department is responsible for you.
Measures to improve the efficiency of each manager:
Teach . Employees, and even more so customer service managers, need to be constantly trained. You can do this on your own in the form of games and "gliders". For example, gather managers and act out a skit that illustrates the process of selling a product to a “difficult” customer. Let everyone offer their own solution, and you notice the most effective ones.
Set up an intra-company marketing system . Remember the rule: "As the company treats its employees, so the employees treat their customers." If you do not motivate staff, do not create normal working conditions, do not respect your employees, then they will never work well.
Arrange monthly contests and other motivating events . For example, the employee who sold the largest amount of goods gets an additional day off next month.
Make salespeople work with the sales funnel . Explain to managers that they must turn passers-by into visitors and visitors into customers. Tell us about the technologies of working with a potential consumer at each stage of the sales process.
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